This structures the research and provides the object of study a condition of verifiability.
The categories are not, of course, used only to relate to society. The first class of social facts also contains currents of opinion, or social phenomena that express themselves through individual cases. It is by protecting the rights of the individual in this way, somewhat paradoxically, that society is best preserved.
Rural residents and women are assumed to be protected from suicide due to their traditional roles and dispositions. In this way, Durkheim argues, modern societies will retain their cohesion.
The division of labor thus has the important effect of individuating the population and creating differences between individuals in a society. For example, the rhythm of social life serves as the base for the category of time, the spatial arrangement of the group serves as a base for the category of space, the social grouping of society for example in clans or phratries serves as a base for the category of class as in the classification of itemsand collective force is at the origin of the concept of an efficacious force, which was essential to the very first formulations of the category of causality.
Religion was thus the first place where humans could attempt to rationally explain and understand the world around them. Rather, Durkheim treats moral phenomena as conditioned both socially and historically. As a result, individuals were having a hard time finding meaningful attachments to social groups and society as a whole lost its former unity and cohesiveness.
Through the new religion of the cult of the individual, to which he gave his full support, Durkheim predicted that European society would once again find the unity and cohesion it was lacking; once again it would have a sacred object.
They can only be observed through the more or less systematized phenomenal reality to be analyzed as empirical data that expresses them. The categories, such as time and space, are not vague and indeterminate, as Kant suggests.