On the other hand, during the same period in the 20th century, many notable practitioners of English literature left the British Isles to live abroad: James JoyceD. The literature of this time is known for its use of philosophy, reason, skepticism, wit, and refinement.
This era also produced a group of poets known as the Georgian poets. A contemporary of William Langland and a personal friend of Chaucer, Gower is remembered primarily for three major works: the Mirroir de l'Omme, Vox Clamantisand Confessio Amantisthree long poems written in Anglo-NormanLatin and Middle English respectively, which are united by common moral and political themes.
Poststructuralist literary theory and criticism developed during this time. Many writers of the Edwardian Period continued to write during the Georgian Period.
The second half of the fourteenth century produced the first great age of secular literature. Beowulf is the conventional title,  and its composition is dated between the 8th   and the early 11th century. During this time, medieval tradition was blended with Renaissance optimism.
Restoration comedies comedies of manner developed during this time under the talent of playwrights such as William Congreve and John Dryden.